Describe the achievements of Akbar
Describe the achievements of Akbar : In this post we will evaluate the achievements of akbar as a king. Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state.
Describe the achievements of Akbar
Military achievements of Akbar:
(i) The second battle: of Panipat in 1556 was fought between Akbar and Hemu, the chief minister of Mohammad Adil Shah of Bengal. Akbar with the support of Bairam Khan, attacked Hemu and defeated him in the battle. The battle marked the real beginning of the Mughal Empire in India and set it on the path of expansion. After this battle, Akbar reoccupied Del hi and Agra. He wanted to establish political stability and peace.
(ii) Conquest of Malwa: He conquered Ajmer, Delhi, Gwalior and Jaunpure Fortlessly, because the people themselves had extended welcome to him. In 1562, Akbar’s forces defeated Baz Bahadur, the ruler of Malwa and the state was annexed.
(iii) Conquest of Gondwana : In 1564, Akbar turned his attention against Gondwana, a small Kingdom (U.P.). It’s Queen Durgavathi and her son Veeranarayana were killed in the war fought near Jabalpur. The Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire.
(iv) Conquest of Chittor (Mewar) in 1567: Akbar was cordial with Rajputs. ButUdaya Singh of Mewar did not yield to Akbar. Udaya Singh and his son Jaimal were ki lied in the battle and Chittor was occupied by the Mughals in 1568. But Ranapratap Singh ss(Son of Udaya Singh) continued his memorable struggle against the Mughals. He was defeated by Akbar at Haldighat in 1576 C.E. Akbar founded a new capital at Udaipur.
(v) Conquest of Gujarat in 1572: The wealth and anarchical condition of Gujarat invited Akbar’s aggression in 1572 C.E. He marched to Gujarat, captured Ahmadnagar and received the submission of Muzaffar Shah, ruler of Gujarat. His Empire now extended up to the sea and could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and the western ports.
(vi) Annexation of Kabul and Kashmir: Ranathambore from Roy Suijenhara, and Kalinjar from Ramachandra were conquered. Bengal, Kabul, Sindhu, Kashmir and Orissa were also annexed to the Mughal Empire.
(vii) Extent of the Kingdom: The Kingdom of Akbar extended from Kabul in the west, to Bengal in the east, and Ahmadnagar in the south to Kashmir in the north.
(viii) Conquest of Deccan : Akbar turned his attention towards Deccan in 1600 C.E. The Sultans of Khandesh, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda were creating troubles for him. He sent his huge army under the leadership of his son Murad to subdue Ahmadnagar. Chand Bibi fought remarkably well against the Mughal forces.
Religious policy of Akbar:
Akbar was liberal minded and tolerant of other religions. His aim was to wipe out the differences that kept people apart and to bring about unity among them. He openly pronounced his faith in the principle of universal toleration and tried to eliminate the deep rooted antagonism of Muslims towards Hindus. He abolished the pilgrimage Tax and Reziya. He permitted Hindus to worship their Gods and he did not compel them to convert to Islam. He appointed Hindus to high administrative posts on the basis of merit. He also participated in Hindu festivals like Rakhi, Holi, Diwali and Shivaratri.
Akbar founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581. It was based on the principles of peace for all and was an attempt to unite people of different faiths into one brotherhood. He built the ‘Ibadat Khana’ at Fathepur Sikri. He invited the various religious leaders for a meeting to understand the essence of their religions. Akbar issued the infallibility Decree, according to which Akbar became the supreme arbiter of Justice in civil and religious matters. He collected and codified the essences of all religions and openly declared his idea of a universal religion called Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar never forced anybody to join the new religion.
Akbar was a good organizer and administrator. He was a benevolent monarch, having the welfare of the people always in his mind, and took personal interest in the affairs of the state.
The Emperor was the supreme authority in the administration. He was assisted by the council of ministers. The important ministers were the Vakil, Diwan-i-Aii, Mir Bakshi. Sadar – us – Sadar, Khani-Saman, Dewan, and Qazi. The government was divided into a number of departments and each was headed by an officer under a minister. Kingdom was divided into a number of provinces called ‘Subas’. Each province was headed by a ‘Subedar’. Province was divided into Sarkars, Paraganas and Villages. Village was the last unit of administration. The important officers of the Provinces were Dewan, Bakshi, Sadar, Faujadar, Kotwal, Qazi and others.
Akbar introduced a new system of military and civil administration known as ‘Mansabdari System’. The term ‘Mansab’ means an officer of rank or power or dignity. It aimed at fixing a particular person at a particular place, on the basis of his horses, solidiers, his status and salary etc. This army was at the service of the Emperor as and when required. It was composed of infantry, artillery, cavalry and elephantry. The Mansabdars could be transferred from one place to another. He created 33 grades of mansabdars and these grades ranged from a mansabdar incharge of 10, to a mansabdar controlling 10,000.
The grade fixed, generally indicated the number of horse soldiers. The Emperor could appoint, promote and dismiss Mansabdars at his will. The horses under the Mansabdars were branded with the imperial sign. The salaries of Mansabdars were high, They were generally not paid in cash but were alloted Jagirs yielding their respective salaries. There was always the possibility of some powerful Mansabdars revolting against the Emperor with the help of their soldiers, because loyalty of the soldiers was always to the Mansabdar and not to the Emperor.
Todarmal’s Bandobust (Revenue System):
Land revenue was the main source of income to the state. In 1581 C.E., Akbar’s revenue minister Raja Todarmal reorganized the whole land revenue system with what was known as ‘Zabti System or Aindeeh-Sala’. The land was surveyed with Jaribs. Land was classified into different categories according to the fertility of the soil, as Polaj, Parauti, Chachar and Banjar. The revenue could be paid in cash or kind. RajaTodarmal provided loans (Taccavi) to the cultivators.
Taccavi loans were granted for the development of agriculture, which could be repaid in easy annual instalments. This land revenue system was called as ‘Todarmal’s Bandobust’. The state maintained the documents, Palta and Qabiliyat, which recorded information regarding the land, ownership and land revenue. Corruption among the Government officials was curbed.
Literature, Art and Architecture :
Akbar was a patron of literature. Abdul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Nama. He was the most renowned Persion writer. The Tabakat-i-Akbari written by Nizamuddin, Ramayana (Haji Ibrahim), Mahabharatha (Nagib Khan), Alharvaveda and Leelavathi (Faizi), Rajatarangini, Panchatantra and the story of Nala Damayanthi etc were translated from Sanskrit to Persion.
Some popular Hindi scholars were Tulasidas, Surdas, Abdul Rahim, Ras Khan, Birbal, Mansingh and others. Birbal was the favourite of Akbar and was conferred with the title ‘Kavi Raja’. Akbar patronized the ‘Nine Jewels’ in his court. They were – (1) Abdul Rahim (2) Abul Fazal, (3) Birbal, (4) Faizi (5) Hamid Human (6) Raja Mansingh (7) Shaikh Mubarak (8) Tansen (9) RajaTodarmal.
Akbar extended liberal patronage to the growth of architecture in India. The first work of Akbar was the ‘Hufnayun Tomb’ at Delhi, which is in the persian style. Most of the buildings of Akbar’s time were built with red sand stone. The Jodha Bai Palace, Panchamahal are the impressive structures by Akbar at Fathepur Sikri. The massive 176 ft.Gateway or the ‘Buland Darwaza’ is the highest Gateway of India. Red Fort of Agra, Jamma-Masjid, white marble Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti, Diwan-i-Am, Diwan – i – Khas, house of Birbal, Sonhal Makan are some other beautiful architectural edicts by Akbar.
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