Literary Magazines and Periodicals

Literary Magazines and Periodicals

Literary Magazines and Periodicals : Many literary magazinesperiodicals and reviews played dominant role in introducing and promoting the works of writers of the time. There was a kind of tacit agreement and intimate relationship between literature and politics. Literature is a reflection of society and this reflection can be seen clearly in the magazines and periodicals.

Some of these literary periodicals served as mouthpiece of a particular literary school or a movement of the period promoting their principles and doctrines in the arena of literature. They also expressed their ideology against the existing movement and school which was in vogue at some point of time.

Literary Magazines and Periodicals

These literary magazines and periodicals were associated with literary schools and movements in English literature and many works of the renowned writers were published serially in the literary journals and periodicals.

These magazines and periodicals also published serial novels of many famous writers such as Charles, Dickens, William Makepeace Thackeray, Charles Reade, George Eliot etc.

The periodical essays were published in magazines and journals at regular intervals: weekly, fortnightly, monthly etc. There was a tremendous growth in the publication of periodicals in the 18th century. Their primary aim was to bring reform, to instruct and inform the mind and delight the heart of reading public.


There have been many  literary magazines and periodicals in English which were deeply associated with great writers in English literature.

The first periodical appeared on the scene was the French “Journals des Scavans” in 1665. It was followed by the “Giornale de Letterati”, an Italian periodical in 1668. The British periodical “Mercurius Librarius” was published in the same year in 1668.

The Athenian Mercury or Athenian Gazette:

John Dunton’s “The Athenian Mercury” or “Athenian Gazette” appeared in 1691. The periodical is also known as “The Question Project” because the questions of the readers used to be answered in the periodical. The periodical encompassed many topics dealing with politics, science, literature, and religion. The “Athenian Mercury” can be deemed as a precursor of the periodical “Notes and Queries” which appeared in 1849.

Gentleman’s Journal:

“The Athenian Mercury” was followed by the “Gentleman’s Journal” in 1692. It was edited by Peter Anthony Motteux. The Gentleman’s Journal covered news of prose and poetry. It also paved the way for the modern magazine. Jane Brereton wrote an imitation of Horace’s verse in the Gentleman’s Magazine in 1716. The Athenian Gazette and the Gentleman’s Journal are the precursors of Daniel Defoe’s weekly periodical “The Review” which appeared in 1704. It mainly dealt with political affairs of the time.

The Review: 

Daniel Defoe’s “The Review” which began in 1704. It bitterly attacked follies and foibles of people in sarcastic language. The Review was originally called as “A Weekly Review of the Affairs of France” but it was afterwards titled as “A Review of the State of the British Nation” in 1707. The Review commented upon politics, trade, religion, economics and other social topics. It is interesting to note that “The Review” also had a section of stories called “Advice from the Scandal Club”.


It was a periodical originally founded by Richard Steele and later on joined by Joseph Addison in 1709 and it appeared three times a week until 1711, numbering 271 issues in all.

The purpose of The Tatler paper was “to expose the false arts of life, to pull off the disguise of cunning, vanity, and affectation, and to recommend a general simplicity in our dress, our discourse, and our behaviour.”

The Tatler also included letters, stories, reviews of recent plays, and publications, and spoof advertisement along with the real ones. The Tatler had a didactic and moral tone, attacking the evils of duelling and gambling, and it also discussed the matters of good manners of the time.

The Tatler was republished in book form and was popular for its light satiric tone. In this joint venture Joseph Addison also contributed suggestions, notes and a number of complete papers with equal zeal and force as Steele.

Jonathan Swift’s some poems appeared in the Tatler and Alexander Pope borrowed some material on fashions for his famous “Rape of the Lock” from the Tatler.

The Female Tatler:

In 1709, Richard Steele’s “Tatler” was followed by “The Female Tatler” which was edited by Phoebe Crackenthorpe.

The Examiner:

John Henry Bolingbroke founded a periodical “The Examiner” in 1710. The periodical had a Tory outlook, and it attacked superstitions and the historical elements of Christianity. It is important to note that Alexander Pope’s “The Essay on Man” was greatly influenced by John Henry Bolingbroke.

The Spectator: Literary Magazines and Periodicals

The Periodical succeeded the “Tatler” from March 1, 1711 to 1712 which was produced jointly by Addison and Steele. After an interval for some time, it reappeared in 1714; it was revived by Joseph Addison and 80 numbers were added to it.

The Spectator appeared daily except Sundays. It became immensely popular with the middle class and professional readership. It was closely connected with London and its coffee houses. This periodical was mainly dealt with contemporary manners, morals and literature.

In this periodical Addison’s nineteen essays became famous for they were literary papers on Milton’s “Paradise Lost”, and his eleven essays dealt with pleasures of imagination. The primary motto of this periodical was to ‘enliven morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality’.

The Spectator was written in satiric tone. The Tatler and the Spectator were the beginning of the modern essay; and their studies of human character, as exemplified in Sir Roger de Coverley, are the preparation for the modern novel.

Theophrastus’s style of blending the good qualities to bad in his characters was adopted by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in “Spectator”. Robert Buchanan’s brutal attack on A.C. Swinburne appeared in the poem “The Session of the Poets” which appeared in the “Spectator” in 1866.

The Guardian:

Another important periodical by Richard Steele “The Guardian” appeared in 1713. The major contribution came from Joseph Addison, George Berkeley, and Alexander Pope. It is important to note that “The Guardian” was formed in opposition to “The Examiner”.

The Craftsman:

Nicholas Amherst started as periodical “The Craftsman” in 1727. It was a weekly periodical; John Henry Bolingbroke contributed to this periodical.

Grub Street Journal:

John Martyn and Richard Russell edited the satirical literary newspaper “Grub Street Journal” in 1730.

The Gentleman’s Magazine:

It was a periodical, appeared in 1731. It was founded by Edward Cave, under the pen-name Sylvanus Urban. The Gentleman’s Magazine contained essays, news, anecdotes, criticism, and poetry.

Dr. Samuel Johnson contributed to this journal. William Barnes’s articles on archaeology were published in “The Gentleman’s Magazine”.

London Magazine:

The Gentleman’s Magazine was followed by a periodical, “London Magazine” in 1732. It was started by Isaac Kimber. The London Magazine contained information about arts, and literature. The London Magazine was formed in opposition to “The Gentleman’s Magazine”. It is important to note that James Boswell wrote essays as “The Hypochondriack” for the London Magazine between 1777 and 1783.

The Monthly Review:

It was a literary periodical of Ralph Griffiths appeared in 1749. The periodical had liberal outlook; Oliver Goldsmith, Richard Brinsley Sheridan and many other renowned writers contributed to it.


Dr. Samuel Johnson’s “Rambler” began in 1750. It was a twice weekly periodical and it published essays on different topic like crime, education, history, economics etc. Fables, allegories, and criticism were also a part of the periodical. Some famous writers like Samuel Richardson, Hester Chapone, Elizabeth Carter and Catherine Talbot contributed to this periodical.

The Old Maid:

Frances Brooke founded a periodical named “The Old Maid” which appeared once in a week between 1755 and 1756. “The Old Maid” was modelled on Richard Steele’s famous periodical “The Spectator”. Frances Brooke produced a series of essays which appeared in ‘The Old Maid’. She wrote her essays under the pseudonym Mary SingletonSpinster.

She was sarcastically titled as ‘the first novelist of North America’ when she visited Canada and wrote a novel “The History of Emily Montagu” in 1769 in Canada.

The Critical Review:

Dr. Johnson’s “Rambler” was followed by “The Critical Review” which appeared in 1756. It was formed against a liberal literary periodical “The Monthly Review”. Tobias Smollett edited the “Critical Review” for some time. Oliver Goldsmith, Dr. Samuel Johnson, and David Hume wrote for “The Critical Review”.

The Annual Register:

Robert Dodsley founded “The Annual Register” in collaboration with Edmund Burke in 1758. It was eulogized as ‘the best and most comprehensive of all the periodical works’. It was a yearly review of history, politics and literature of the past year.

The Idler:

Another periodical “The Idler” by Dr. Samuel Johnson, appeared in 1758. ‘The Idler’ was written in vivid and lucid style containing 104 papers. Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Warton contributed to this periodical.

Morning Chronicle:

The “Morning Chronicle”, a Whig journal, began in 1769, and it was founded by William Woodfall. Many renowned literary figures like Charles Lamb, William Makepeace Thackeray, Charles Dickens, John Stuart Mill, and Thomas Moore contributed to this periodical.

The Analytical Review:

Joseph Johnson’s “The Analytical Review” appeared in 1788. This literary periodical had radical outlook and it played vital role in scattering the fragrance of Romanticism. The works of William Wordsworth, Charles Lamb, and Robert Southey were published in the “Analytical Review”.

The Watchman:

A literary periodical “The Watchman” appeared in 1796; it was founded by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The political atmosphere of Coleridge’s time peeps through this periodical.

The Monthly Magazine:

The Monthly Magazine appeared in 1796; it was formed by Richard Phillips, a staunch supporter of Thomas Paine. The magazine covered a wide range of topics like literature, philosophy, politics, science etc. John Aiken edited the magazine and many renowned writers of the time contributed to the Monthly Magazine.

The Anti-Jacobin, or Weekly Examiner:

It was founded in 1797 by George Canning and his friends George Ellis and John Frere. It was formed against the “Monthly Magazine”. The primary goal of the journal was to oppose the radical views of the Monthly Magazine. It also opposed Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s journal “The Watchman”.

The Anti-Jacobin” was edited by William Gifford, and it had a Tory outlook. The journal had satire and parody as its lethal weapons; it ridiculed Robert Southey, Erasmus, and Charles Darwin.

During the nineteenth century, there was an emergence of the modern reviews and magazines. It is interesting to note that all forms of literature like poetry, prose, and criticism flourished during this age. But there was a clash between two ideologies. Like the 18th century literature, the literature of the nineteenth century was also greatly influenced by magazines and reviews.

In the nineteenth century, the magazines and reviews imparted great opportunity to the writers. Secondly, it opened up for them a new door for criticism, especially for the criticism of contemporary literature. There was some room for the discussion of the respective principles and objectives of the old Classical and the Romantic school. As a result, the critics were also split into two groups: the conservatives and the radical.

Edinburgh Review:

The Edinburgh Review was the mouthpiece of the Whig Party and it was formed by Sidney Smith and Francis Jeffrey in 1802. Francis Jeffrey stated, “The Review, in short, has but two legs to stand upon. Literature, no doubt, is one of them; and its Right leg is Politics.” Thomas Carlyle called it as a ‘kind of Delphic oracle’.

Francis Jeffrey, the editor of the Edinburgh Review, employed the term ‘Lake School’ of poets contemptuously in one of his articles. He criticized the romantic writers, especially William Wordsworth. Jeffrey’s poetic taste was conservative or Classical, he did not like the radical thoughts of the romantics. He was highly sarcastic and unkind to the romantic poets and so he assaulted the romantic poets in his articles.

Francis Jeffrey attacked William Wordsworth’s famous work “The Excursion” which was to become the second book of the great work “The Recluse”. Along with Wordsworth, he also hurled his sharp and bitter criticism at Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Robert Southey. Joanna Baillie’s plays were also bitterly criticized by Francis Jeffrey in the “Edinburgh Review”. George Gordon Byron’s collection of poems “Hours of Idleness” was criticized by Henry Brougham in the Edinburgh Review in 1807.

The Examiner:

Another famous weekly periodical named, “The Examiner” was formed by the two brothers, John and Leigh Hunt in 1808. It is important to note that ‘The Examiner” supported the works of the second generation romantic poets such as Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats, William Hazlitt, and Charles Lamb.

There was great hostility between Tory mouthpiece “Quarterly Review” and “Blackwood’s Magazine” and “The Examiner”. The Examiner was bitterly attacked by the two famous journals of the period for its radical outlook.

William Hazlitt bitterly attacked the superficiality of the ‘fashionable novel‘ that is also known as ‘silver-fork novel‘, in his famous essay “The Dandy School” in the periodical “The Examiner” in 1827. William Hazlitt opined that the fashionable novel makes the readers admire the insolence, follies and affectation of the upper strata of society and thus misguided to the people.


Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s periodical “Friend” was founded in 1809 in collaboration with Sarah Hutchinson. A few sections of William Wordsworth’s “The Prelude” were published in “Friend”. The periodical covered varied topics like literature, morals, politics, and religion.

The Quarterly Review:

In 1809, “The Quarterly Review” was formed in opposition to “The Edinburgh Review”. It was a Tory mouthpiece which denounced the new poetry. “The Quarterly Review” was founded by John Murray and it was edited by William Gifford.

John Keats famous poem “Endymion” was brutally criticized by Gifford. Major contribution to the Quarterly Review came from George Canning, John Frere, Robert Southey and Sir Walter Scott. Keats’ “Endymion” was also harshly criticized in the “Quarterly Review” by John Croker in 1818. It is still said that Croker’s review hastened the death of the poet.

But Croker’s remarks on Keats’ “Endymion” are not as poisonous as Lockhart’s comments in the Blackwood’s Magazine. But John Croker’s caustic review of Anna Laetitia Barbauld’s poem “Eighteen Hundred and Eleven” in The Quarterly Review” made her resolve not to publish any more poetry.

The Reflector:

Another literary quarterly “The Reflector” began in 1810; it was started by Leigh Hunt. It is important to note that Charles Lamb’s essays on the plays of William Shakespeare and on William Hogarth appeared in “The Reflector”.

New Monthly Magazine:

The “New Monthly Magazine”, a periodical was formed by Henry Colburn and F. Schoberi in 1814. It was started to oppose the “Monthly Magazine”. The critical essays of Thomas Talfourd on William Wordsworth, Charles Lamb, and John Keats were the main attraction of the periodical.

It is to be noted that Charles Dickens dedicated his “Pickwick Papers” to Thomas Talfourd. Richard Harris Barham’s work ‘The Ingoldsby Legends; or Mirth and Marvels, by Thomas Ingoldsby Esquire” appeared in “New Monthly Magazine”.

North American Review:

In 1815, a quarterly periodical “North American Review” was started, Charles Norton, James Russell Lowell and Henry Adams were its editors. The periodical afterwards became a monthly periodical. Washington Irvin, Mark Twain, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry James contributed to this periodical. William Cullen Bryant’s poem in blank verse “Thanatopsis” appeared in the “North American Review” in 1817. The poem has been composed in Wordsworthian Vein.

Blackwood’s Magazine, or ‘The Maga’:

William Blackwood’s the “Blackwood’s Magazine” or “the Maga” with a Tory outlook appeared in 1817; it was a monthly periodical. It was started in opposition the “Edinburgh Review”. It is also known as “Edinburgh Monthly Magazine”, and then it was called as “Blackwood’s Edinburgh Review”.

The Blackwood magazine attacked the second generation romantic poets as: “The Cockney writers are by far the vilest vermin that ever dared to creep upon the hem of the majestic garment of the English muse.”

John Lockhart attacked the Cockney School of Poetry in the magazine; particularly Leigh was targeted. Leigh Hunt Published John Keats’ work in the radical journal “The Examiner” and he continued to support Keats. John Keats and William Hazlitt were also mocked at by the Blackwood’s Magazine.

John Galt’s epistolary novel “The Ayrshire Legatees” was serialized in the Blackwood’s Magazine. William Edmonstoune Aytoun’s “Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers” first published in the Blackwood’s Magazine. George Eliot’s famous novel “Middlemarch: A Study of Provincial Life” was published in numbers between 1871 and 1872 in the “Blackwood’s Magazine”. ”

Similarly, George Eliot’s last novel was serialized between 1874 and 1876 in the “Blackwood’s Magazine”. Another novel of George Eliot “Scenes of Clerical Life” was serialized in the “Blackwood’s Magazine” in 1857Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s “The Cry of the Children” published in the Blackwood’s in 1843. Oscar Wilde’s work “The Portrait of Mr. W.H.” deals with the Shakespearean Sonnets; it was published in 1899 as an article in the Blackwood’s Magazine. It appeared in a book form in 1920.

Literary Gazette:

Henry Colburn started a “Literary Gazette” in collaboration with William Jerdan in 1817. William Jerdan served as an editor of the Literary Gazette. It covered a wide range of topics on fine arts, sciences, and books. The Literary Gazette also comprised book reviews. Latitia Landon, George Crabbe, Mary Mitford and Barry Cornwall wrote for it.


Leigh Hunt’s periodical the “Indicator” appeared in 1819, he also handled a job of an editor of the periodical. The “Indicator” dealt with the topics related to literature and it did not served any political party. The works of the budding writers like John Keats were published in the periodical.

London Magazine:

The London Magazine was founded in 1820 and it was edited by John Scott. The works of William Wordsworth, Charles Lamb, Thomas Carlyle and Thomas De Quincey were included in the London Magazine. Some works of John Keats, Leigh Hunt and William Hazlitt gained some room in it. The London Magazine put stress on the original writing.

Thomas Carlyle’s Life of Schiller appeared in the London magazine between 1823 and 1824. Henry Francis Cary wrote articles on French poets which appeared in the London Magazine. Thomas De Quincey’s “Confessions of an Opium-Eater“, William Hazlitt’s “Table-Talk” and a few earlier essays of Elia by Charles Lamb were first published in the London Magazine.

Retrospective Review:

As a review of past literature, the “Retrospective Review” was started in 1820 by Henry Southern and he also worked as an editor of the review. The main goal of the “Retrospective Review” was to take a view of development and growth of English Literature and arouse interest in the old literature. It reviewed the works of Francis Bacon, Henry Vaughan, Ben Jonson, George Herbert and Sir Thomas Browne. It also made comparison between the quality of the old literature and the modern literature.

Westminster Review:

The “Westminster Review”, a philosophical journal, was formed by James Mill in 1824. It attacked the “Quarterly Review” and the “Edinburgh Review” for their narrow outlook. It supported Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Alfred Lord Tennyson and Thomas Carlyle. The works of Walter Pater, Herbert Spencer, J. A. Fraude, and George Eliot appeared in the “Westminster Review”. It became a monthly in 1887.


The “Athenaeum”, a literary review, was founded by James Buckingham in collaboration with John Hamilton Reynolds, Thomas Hood, and Alan Cunningham. It criticized a narrowness of the Quarterly Review. The major contribution came from the renowned writers like Charles Lamb, James Hogg, Walter Savage Landor, Robert Browning, Virginia Woolf, Thomas Stern Eliot, Thomas Hardy and many other famous writers.

Fraser’s Magazine:

William Maginn and Hugh Fraser founded a literary and general journal “Fraser’s Magazine” in 1830. It is important to note that the “Fraser’s Magazine” was not owned by any publisher of books. Charles Kingsley’s historical novel, “Hypatia” appeared in the “Fraser’s Magazine” in 1851.

William Makepeace Thackeray criticised William Harrison Ainsworth‘s newgate novels “Rookwood” and “Jack Sheppard” in “Fraser’s Magazine” in his novel “Catherine“. It appeared in instalments between 1839 and 1840 in “Fraser’s Magazine”. Most of the great writers of the time contributed to it. Charles Lamb, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, Thomas Love Peacock, John Ruskin, and William Harrison Ainsworth wrote for the “Fraser’s Magazine”.

Englishman’s Magazine:

A literary monthly, “Englishman’s Magazine” appeared in 1831; it was edited by Edward Moxon. The Englishman’s Magazine covered poetry, criticism, drama, essays including music and art. It is important to note that the “Englishman’s Magazine” supported the Cockney School of poets.

Chamber’s Journal, or Chamber’s Edinburgh Journal:

It was founded by Robert Chambers in 1832. It included literature, science, and arts.

Penny Magazine:

Charles Knight founded “Penny Magazine” in 1832 for the poor and needy. He wanted to cater information and knowledge to them at low price.

Knickerbocker Magazine:

In 1833, the “Knickerbocker Magazine” also known as “New York Monthly Magazine” appeared in New York; it was edited by Charles Hoffman. It published works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Fenimore Cooper, and Washington Irvin.

Bentley’s Miscellany:

“Bentley’s Miscellany”, a periodical was formed in 1837 by Richard Bentley. Charles Dickens was the first editor of the periodical. It covered fiction, poetry, essays, and stories.

Richard Harris Barham’s “The Ingoldsby Legends; or Mirth and Marvels, by Thomas Ingoldsby Esquire” were first published in “Bentley’s Miscellany” in 1837. William Harrison Ainsworth’s famous newgate novel “Jack Sheppard” appeared in numbers in “Bentley’s Miscellany” between 1829 and 1840.

Ainsworth’s novel “Jack Sheppard” was criticized by William Makepeace Thackeray in his novel “Catherine” in 1839-40. Charles Dickens’s novel “Oliver Twist” was published in “Bentley’s Miscellany”. The great writers like William Maginn, William Makepeace Thackeray, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, contributed to “Bentley’s Miscellany”.

The Dial:

“The Dial” a literary quarterly periodical of the American Transcendental Movement appeared in 1840. It was edited by Margaret Fuller. Many great writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Thoreau, and Nathaniel Hawthorne contributed to it.


An illustrated comic weekly periodical namely, “Punch” appeared on the literary scene in 1841. The periodical is also known as “The London Charivari”. In the beginning, the periodical focused on radicalism and later on it became less political. Henry Mayhew, Mark Lemon and Joseph Sterling Coyne worked as editors of the “Punch”. It is probably modelled on Philippon’s “Paris Charivari”.

There were other comic periodicals in vogue such as Gilbert Beckett’s “Figaro in London” in 1831 and “Punchinello” in 1832. Many renowned writers, engravers, cartoonists, and illustrators were associated with the “Punch”.

William Makepeace Thackeray, John Tenniel, John Leech also contributed to the periodical. The cover design of “Punch” was designed by Richard Doyle which was employed from 1849 to 1956. The pictures of Punch and a dog usually appeared on the jacket of the “Punch”.

It is important to note that William Makepeace Thackeray’s famous novel “Vanity Fair” appeared in the “Punch” in a serialized form between 1847 and 1848.

Master Humphrey’s Clock: Literary Magazines and Periodicals

A weekly periodical “Master Humphrey’s Clock” was formed by Charles Dickens in 1840. Charles Dickens’s novel “Barnaby Rudge” appeared in “Master Humphrey’s Clock” in 1841.

The Nation:

The Irish weekly periodical “The Nation” began in 1842. It was formed by Thomas Davies, Charles Gavan Duffy, and John Blake Dillon. It published poetry, reviews and articles.

Notes and Queries:

It followed the footsteps of “The Athenian Mercury”, it was a periodical formed by William Thoms. It began in 1849 and subtitled as “a medium of inter-communication for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealogists, etc.” it is a scholarly literary journal at present. Its main motto was ‘When found, made a note of”.


A periodical called ‘Germ” appeared in 1850. It was a mouthpiece of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. It was edited by William Michael Rossetti. Major contribution came from Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti, Coventry Patmore and Ford Madox Brown.

Harper’s Monthly Magazine: Literary Magazines and Periodicals

The “Harper’s Monthly Magazine” appeared in New York in 1850. It was formed by Harper and Brothers. It published works of Charles Dickens, Edward Bulwer-Lytton and William Makepeace Thackeray in serialized form. Herman Melville, Sarah Orne Jewett and William Dean Howells contributed it.

It is important to note that Thomas Hardy’s novel “Jude the Obscure” was serialized in Harper’s Monthly Magazine between 1894 and 1895.

Household Words:

Another periodical by Charles Dickens, “Household Words’ came into being in 1850. Charles Dickens edited the periodical. Elizabeth Gaskell, Wilkie Collins, George Meredith contributed to the “Household Words’.

Charles Dickens’s novel “David Copperfield” appeared in numbers in the “Household Words” between 1849 and 1850. Charles Dickens’s novel “Bleak House” was serialized in “Household Words” between 1852 and 1853. Another novel of Charles Dickens namely, “Hard Times” appeared in instalments in the “Household Words” in 1854.

Elizabeth Gaskell’s novel “North and South” was published in numbers in the “Household Words” between 1854 and 1855. Charles Dickens’s novel “Little Dorrit” was published in serial form between 1855 and 1857 in the “Household Words”.

All the Year Round: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

It is to be noted that after a few years, the “Household Words” was incorporated into Charles Dickens’s weekly periodical “All the Year Round” in 1859. Charles Dickens edited the periodical “All the Year Round” in his life time. The periodical “All the Year Round” focused on social reform along with the entertainment of the public.

Many famous writers contributed to it. Wilkie Collins’s famous novel “Moonstone” was published in numbers in 1868 in “All the Year Round”. Charles Reade’s famous novel “Hard Cash: A Matter of Fact Romance” was serialized in “All the Year Round” as “Very Hard Cash” in 1863. Charles Dickens’s novel “Great Expectations” was published in instalments between 1860 and 1861 in “All the Year Round”.


George Henry Lewes and Thornton Leigh Hunt formed a weekly periodical, “Leader” in 1850. Herbert Spencer, Alexander Kinglake and George Henry Lewes contributed to it.

Saturday Review:

“The Saturday Review”, a weekly review was founded by A. J. B. Beresford Hope in 1855. It published works of Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells, Max Beerbohm, and Arthur Symons.

The Oxford and Cambridge Magazine:

It appeared in 1856; it published poems, fairy stories, essays and reviews. William Morris, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones contributed to it.

Atlantic Monthly Magazine:

The “Atlantic Monthly Magazine” was formed in 1857; it was edited by James Russell Lowell. The works of Henry James, Mark Twain and Charles Chesnutt published in it. After James Russell Lowell, William Dean Howell became an assistant on the Atlantic Monthly Magazine in 1867 and he became its chief editor in 1871.

Kate Chopin published stories of Louisiana and Sarah Jewett produced sketches and stories which she called novels for the Atlantic Monthly Magazine.

Harper’s Weekly Magazine: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

An illustrated political and literary journal “Harper’s Weekly Magazine” formed in 1857. The works of Charles Dickens, Elizabeth Gaskell, Arthur Conan Doyle and Rudyard Kipling published in it. It was famous for its illustrations and woodcuts. Charles Reade’s novel “Hard Cash: A Matter of Fact of Romance” was serialized in the USA in “Harper’s Weekly Magazine”.

Macmillan’s Magazine:

A periodical “Macmillan’s Magazine” was formed and edited by David Masson. It is important to note that it was one of the first magazines to use signed articles only. Alfred Lord Tennyson, Thomas Hardy, Margaret Oliphant, and Henry James contributed to the periodical.

Cornhill Magazine:

The “Cornhill Magazine” began in 1860, it was a literary periodical which was edited by William Makepeace Thackeray. It published novels in serialized form. The fiction of Elizabeth Gaskell, Anthony Trollope, and Thomas Hardy appeared in it.

It published poetry of Alfred Lord Tennyson, and A. C. Swinburne. George Eliot’s famous novel “Romola” appeared in serialized form in the Cornhill Magazine between 1862 and 1863. Anthony Trollope’s Barsetshire novel “Framley Parsonage” was published in serial form between 1860 and 1861 in the Cornhill Magazine. It is the fourth of the Barsetshire series of novels. “Elizabeth Gaskell’s last and unfinished famous novel “Wives and Daughters” was published in the “Cornhill Magazine” in 1866.

Academy: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

Charles Appleton launched a periodical, “Academy” in 1869. It was a platform for the scholars for cultural and intellectual discussion. Charles Appleton was the editor of the periodical. Matthew Arnold, T. H. Huxley, and Mark Pattison contributed to the periodical.

The Fortnightly Review:

A literary monthly periodical “The Fortnightly Review” began in 1865. It published novels of Anthony Trollope and Walter Bagehot in serialized form. It was edited by G. H. Lewes and it had high literary value.


Ellen Wood also known as Mrs. Henry Wood launched a magazine “Argosy” in 1865. It published essays, and poems. Ellen Wood edited the magazine. she produced some fantastic novels like “East Lynne”. he novels have marvellous setting and skillful plot-construction. Her works can be called as ‘forerunner of crime the crime fiction.

Belgravia: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

An illustrated monthly “Belgravia” was edited by Mary Elizabeth Braddon in 1866. Wilkie Collins, Thomas Hardy and Bret Harte contributed to it. Thomas Hardy’s famous novel  and a pastoral tragedy, “The Return of the Native” was serially published in ‘Belgravia’ in 1878. It is important to note that it was his sixth published novel.

The Contemporary Review:

In 1866, “The Contemporary Review” was established by Sir Percy Bunting. The literary magazine “The Contemporary Review” published content related to religious, political and literary matters.

Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine:

It originated in Philadelphia which contained original works of writers, literary criticism and general articles. It served the readers between 1868 and 1915.

The Lippincott’s magazine, later on, known as McBride Magazine when it moved to New York. The magazines were incorporated into Scribner’s Magazine in 1916. J.B. Lippincott’s was its first editor. Many literary artists and writers were associated to the magazine.

Oscar Wilde’s famous work “The Picture of Dorian Gray” appeared in it in 1890. Rudyard Kipling’s “The Light that Failed” and Arthur Conan Doyle’s “The Sign of Four” were published in the Lippincott’s magazine.

Champion: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

In 1876, Henry Fielding edited a journal “The Champion”. It contained discourse in essays, sermons, mock trials, and letters on political and literary issues of the time.

Nineteenth Century:

A monthly review “Nineteenth Century” was launched in 1877 by James Knowles. Many great writers such as John Ruskin, William Morris, Oscar Wilde, and Beatrice Webb  contributed to it. The name of the review changed at the turn of the century and it became “Nineteenth Century and After”. James Knowles edited the “Nineteenth Century” review for lifetime. The name of the review changed as “Twentieth Century” review in 1951. It was serious and intellectual in tone with an element of objectivity.

The Bulletin:

In 1880, a weekly magazine, “The Bulletin” was started in Sydney, Australia. It was edited by Alfred Stephens. The magazine played significant role for the writers of New Zealand and Australia.


A literary and artistic periodical “The Dial” was formed in 1889 and it was edited by Charles Ricketts and Charles Shannon.


The “Granta”, an old name of river Cam, was adopted for the Cambridge undergraduate periodical which was formed in 1889. Rudolph Chambers was its editor. It published poetry and fiction.

Library: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

A bibliographical journal “The Library” was started in 1889.

The Strand:

A monthly British magazine, “The Strand” appeared on the literary scene in 1891 which mainly contained short fiction and general articles. It was formed by George Newnes; and it was edited by Herbert Smith.

Arthur Conan Doyle’s series of short stories with his impressive detective Sherlock Holmes appeared in the Strand Magazine in 1891, though the character of Sherlock Holmes appeared much earlier in “A Study in Scarlet” in 1887. Many renowned writers such as Agatha Christie and P.G. Wodehouse contributed to the Strand Magazine.


A literary journal, “Yellow-book” was published in 1894 by John Lane. It was edited by Henry Harland, with Aubrey Beardsley. It was a quarterly periodical that was in vogue between 1894 and 1897 in London. The Yellow Book was published at The Bodley Head Publishers by Elkin Matthews and John Lane. It served as a mouthpiece of fin-de-siècle decadence. It was associated with the Aesthetic movement.

The periodical “Yellow Book” contained portraits, paintings, illustrations, and literature. Aubrey Beardsley was its first art editor. He has been given the credit to choose yellow colour of the periodical which implied scurrilous and lascivious content in the Yellow Book.

When Oscar Wilde was imprisoned, Aubrey Beardsley had to vacate his post as an art editor of the Yellow Book in 1895. He then joined another famous art and literature magazine “Savoy” as an art editor. After Aubrey Beardsley’s dismissal, the Yellow Book lost his fame and richness.

Many famous writers such as Max Beerbohm, Ernest Dowson, George Gissing, William Butler Yeats, Arnold Bennett, Henry James, Charlotte Mew, Arthur Symons, H.G. Wells, Ella D’Arcy, Ethel Colburn Mayne contributed to the Yellow Book.


Art and literature magazine “Savoy” appeared in 1896 and it was edited by Arthur Symons. Aubrey Beardsley who had already worked as an art editor of an art and literature periodical the Yellow Book became an art editor of Savoy after his dismissal from the Yellow Book.

Aubrey Beardsley’s famous erotic romance “The Story of Venus and Tannhauser” which was entitled as “Under the Hill” appeared in the Savoy.

The English Review:

A periodical, “English Review” was launched in 1908 which was edited by Ford Madox Ford.


It was a periodical was formed in 1911 and edited by J. M. Murray. Henri Gaudier-Brzeska’s who was one of the founder members of the Vorticism produced his pen and pencil drawings which appeared in “Rhythm”.

Little Review:

Margaret Anderson launched an American monthly magazine, “Little Review” in 1914 in Chicago. It is important to note that James Joyce’s famous work “Ulysses” appeared in serialized form in the “Little Review” between 1918 and 1920.

Blast: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

In 1914, Wyndham Lewis edited the literary periodical “Blast” which was a mouthpiece of the Vorticists. It was subtitled as “Review of the Great English Vortex”. The “Blast” was a bi-monthly magazine which tried to draw together artist and writers of the English avant-garde.

As a Vorticist magazine, the Blast comprised works of Ezra Pound, Wyndham Lewis, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, Jacob Epstein, C.R. Nevinson, Edward Wadsworth and Alvin Langdon Coburn.

Ezra Pound propounded his theory of the ‘Image’ in “Blast”. Wyndham Lewis bitterly criticized contemporary literature and writers in the “Blast” which put much stress on the superiority of intellect than on the imagination and emotion. Henri Gaudier-Brzeska’s vorticist history of sculpture was published in the magazine “Blast”.

Egoist, or New Freewoman:

An Individualist Review, it was started by Harriet Shaw Weaver and Dora Marsden in 1914. It was a feminist paper and published poetry and art. It is important to note that the review was a mouthpiece of Imagist poetry.

New Numbers:

The short-lived quarterly poetry magazine “New Numbers” served as a mouthpiece for the Dymock poets in 1912. Wilfred Wilson Gibson founded this quarterly poetry magazine with Rupert Brooke, John Drinkwater, and Lascelles Abercrombie.

The “New Numbers” published works of Rupert Brooke, John Drinkwater, Lascelles Abercrombie, and Wilfred Wilson Gibson. Rupert Brooke’s “War Sonnets” appeared in New Numbers in 1914. Rupert Brooke’s famous war sonnets “Soldier” and “Peace” appeared in the New Numbers in 1914.

Lascelles Abercrombie also contributed to the four issues of New Numbers in 1914. Wilfred Wilson Gibson‘s poetry appeared in the “New Numbers” which depicted life of the rural rustics in sad and pensive mood. John Drinkwater’s poetry appeared in “New Numbers”.

It is important to note that these Dymock poets also contributed to Georgian Poetry. It is interesting to note that Robert Frost was also one of the members of this group of Dymock poets.

London Mercury:

A monthly literary periodical “London Mercury” was formed by J. C. Squire in 1919. He edited the “London Mercury”. It was a modernist periodical.

Time and Tide:

Time and Tide: An Independent Weekly Review: was launched in 1920 by Viscount Rhondda- Margaret Haig Thomas. She was supported by Rebecca West and Cicely Hamilton. The periodical was edited by Helen Archdale. It was a feminist periodical.


It was a literary periodical formed in 1922 and it was edited by Thomas Stearns Eliot. It contained essays, poetry, short stories and reviews. Thomas Stearns Eliot’s “The Waste Land” appeared in it.

Weird Tales:

A magazine in science fiction and supernatural called “Weird Tales” appeared in 1923 under the editorship of John Middleton Murray.

New Yorker:

An American weekly magazine, “New Yorker” was established in 1925 by Harold Ross. Many artists, reporters, and cartoonists were associated with it.

Calendar of Modern Letters: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

A literary monthly literary periodical “Calendar of Modern Letters” appeared in 1925; it was edited by Edgell Rickword, Douglas Garman, and Bertram Higgins.

Amazing Stories:

It has been deemed as the first science fiction magazine. It was launched by Hugo Gernsback in 1926. Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Ursula K. Le Guin were associated with it.


An international quarterly for creative experiment: It was a periodical founded in 1927 in Paris by Eugene and Maria Jolas.


A BBC weekly magazine “Listener” appeared in 1929. It published reviews, poetry, and fiction. It was edited by J. R. Ackerley.

Astounding Science Fiction:

The magazine “Astounding Science Fiction” or “Analog” appeared in 1930. It primarily published science fiction.

Partisan Review:

An American literary and political periodical “Partisan Review” was launched in 1934. Saul Bellow, Thomas Stearns Eliot, and George Orwell contributed to it.

New Worlds: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

It was British science fiction magazine launched in 1936. James Graham Ballard’s first short story was published in the “New Worlds” in 1956. His novel “The Drought” and his collections of short stories “The Terminal Beach” and “Vermilion Sands” appeared in the “New Worlds”. It was E.J. Carnell who renamed “Novae Terrae” as “New Worlds”.


A literary magazine “Horizon” was founded in 1939 by Cyril Connolly, Stephen Spender and Peter Watson.


A literary quarterly “Stand” was launched in 1952 by Jon Silkin. It published poetry, criticism, and fiction.


A political, cultural, and literary review “Encounter” was established in 1953.

The Evergreen Review:

A New York journal “The Evergreen Review” was started in 1957 which was associated with the Beat Generation and avant-garde writing of the post World War period.

Jack Kerouac’s essays “Essentials of Spontaneous Prose” and “Beliefs and Techniques for Modern Prose” appeared in the “Evergreen Review” in 1959. In these essays Jack Kerouac has artistically explained the way of writing essays without revising rewriting them.

Lawrence Ferlinghetti, one of the leading figures of the ‘Beat movement‘, published Allen Ginsberg’s ‘Howl” for which he was imprisoned in 1956. In his work, “Horn on Howl”, he described a full account of the trial. The work was published in the “Evergreen Review” in 1957.


A periodical “Agenda” was founded in 1959 and it was edited by William Cookson. Ambit: A literary quarterly “Ambit” was established in 1959 by Martin Bax.

Critical Quarterly:

A literary review “Critical Quarterly” was formed in 1959 and it was edited by C. B. Cox and A. E. Dyson. It published literary theory, criticism, and creative writing.

Tel-Quel Magazine:

The ‘Tel Quel’ magazine began in 1960 in Paris and it served the readers until 1982. It was founded by Philippe Sollers, the French critic and novelist and Jean Adern Hallier. The French term ‘Tel Quel” literally means ‘as it is’, ‘as it stands’ or ‘unchanged’.

It was a literary magazine which published ‘avant-garde’ works in critical theory and literature. The Tel Quel School had aesthetic and ideological goals. It believed in the principle that ‘literature is language made with language’.

The periodical primarily published studies in Marxism, deconstruction, psychoanalysis, post-structuralism, semiotics and semiology. The Tel Quel School tried to restore original force of language to it.

Many literary critics and theorists were associated with the Tel Quel magazine like Julia Kristeva, Jacques Derrida, Roland Barthes, Tzvetan Todorov, Michael Foucault, Umberto Eco, and Gerald Génette. The Tel-Quel’ periodical was influenced by the writings of Roland Barthes and semiotics.


A quarterly poetry magazine “Review” was founded in 1962; it was edited by Ian Hamilton.

Poor, Old, Tired, Horse {POTH}:

It was a British periodical mainly associated with the group of concrete poetry. The title of the magazine has been borrowed from Robert White Creeley’s poem “Please”. One of the major Scottish poets of concrete poetry, Ian Hamilton published much of his literature in POTH.

The magazine “Poor, Old, Tired, Horse” has been praised as ‘one of the most important visual poetry magazines internationally’. The magazine played vital role in introducing concrete poetry to the UK. The periodical served the readers from 1962 to 1967. It is important to note that the periodical contained avant-garde literature also.

New Society:

A weekly periodical “New Society” was formed in 1962 and edited by Timothy Raison. It published social sciences, reportage, and the arts.

Poetry Nation:

A twice yearly poetry magazine “Poetry Nation” was launched in 1973. It was edited by C. B. Cox and Michael Schmidt.

London Review of Books: (Literary Magazines and Periodicals)

A literary and cultural review “London Review of Books” was formed in 1979 and edited by Karl Miller. It has published critical essays and articles.


The British science fiction magazine “Interzone” was launched in 1982; it has been edited by David Pringle.

Poetry London:

It is a bi-monthly magazine launched in 1988. Thus, there are many literary magazines and periodicals in English. Many great writers have been in touch with for their works have been published in the periodicals and magazines.

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