The Retreat by Henry Vaughan

The Retreat by Henry Vaughan

The Retreat by Henry Vaughan : ‘The Retreat’ is one of Henry Vaughan’s best-known metaphysical poems. This poem explores how the poet is derailed from purity as a grown-up man and his longing for returning to the blissful state of everlastingness.

The Retreat by Henry Vaughan

‘The Retreat’ glorifies the stage of infancy as the purest state of a man’s life. Before beginning a reader should take note of the use of the word “retreat” in the title. Through Vaughan’s selection of this metaphysical conceit, it takes on two different meanings. The first, that of hiding or getting away from one’s life, and the other as a reference to a place of happiness. He is seeking out both a return to the past and a retreat to a happier time. The two coincide with the speaker.

Summary of The Retreat by Henry Vaughan

‘The Retreat’ by Henry Vaughan describes a speaker’s desire to escape to the past where he was a younger, purer, and generally happier human being.

The poem begins with the speaker mourning for the lost days of his childhood. He longs to return to a time when he was in his “angel infancy” and had yet to be influenced by the dark forces of the world. It would be a time in which he had yet to stray far from his home or realize the struggle that would take him over internally.

In the present day, he worries about his own emotions and his sinful nature. He is concerned over his own being in a way that was not even considered when he was young.

In the final lines, the speaker describes the end of his life and how he will return to the dust of the earth. This will be the penultimate ending for a man who longs for his previous life.


‘The Retreat’ is a thirty-two line poem that is contained within one stanza of text. The poet has chosen to utilize a structured and consistent pattern of rhyme. It follows the scheme of aabbccdd… and so on, throughout the entire text. So, the overall poem is written in rhyming couplets. For example, in the first two lines “I” imperfectly rhymes with “infancy”. In the following lines, “place” and “race” rhyme together. There is no specific stanza division in the text. There is only a shift in mood and thought-process in line 21. Besides, the overall poem is composed of alternative iambic and trochaic meter that resonates with the mood of the speaker.

Literary Devices

This poem begins with a rhetorical exclamation. In the second line, readers can find a metaphor in the phrase, “my angel infancy”. It compares the quality of angels to that of a child. Moving on, there are some more metaphors such as “second race”, “shadows of eternity”, “shoots of everlastingness”, etc. Those metaphors are also examples of metaphysical conceits.

Vaughan uses metonymy in the usage of the word “white”. It is a symbol of purity and innocence. Readers can find alliteration in the phrase “short space”. Here, the repetition of the “s” sound creates a rhyming. In the line “Could see a glimpse of His bright face,” Vaughan alludes to the creator, God.

In the last section, the lines “Some men a forward motion love;/ But I by backward steps would move” contain a paradox. The last two lines of the poem contain anticipation.


‘The Retreat’ taps on the themes of corruption, childhood, and loss of innocence. The main theme of the poem deals with the blissful state of infancy. In this stage, the soul is close to the creator. As the body matures, it sheds off the heavenly qualities and gets corrupted. In this way, Vaughan introduces the theme of spiritual corruption. This type of corruption is caused by worldliness, carnal desires, and materialism. Last but not least, the loss of innocence is another important aspect of this poem. Due to this loss, the speaker realizes the importance of divinity. For this reason, he expresses his concern for backward movement in order to reach the state of purity again.

Line-by-Line Analysis of The Retreat by Henry Vaughan

Lines 1–6

Happy those early days! when I

Shined in my angel infancy.

Before I understood this place

Appointed for my second race,

Or taught my soul to fancy aught

But a white, celestial thought;

In the first section of Vaughan’s ‘The Retreat,’ the speaker begins by making an exclamation, which at this point, has no defining context. On first reading, one might see this line as a celebratory statement, but after coming to a greater understanding of the text it becomes clear it is closer to grief than joy. 

The speaker is looking back on the days of his youth and remembering what it was like when he “Shined in [his] angel infancy.” He is long past these moments but remembers them very fondly. They seem to him to be the clearest, purest, parts of his life.

The following lines continue his reminiscences by speaking of how he understands “this place” now. He knows the world he is living in and can see all of its dark corners. Before though, this was not the case. As a youth, he used to live so purely he didn’t even think about how “celestial” his thoughts were. Now, thinking cleanly takes a concerted effort.

Lines 7–14

When yet I had not walked above

A mile or two from my first love,

And looking back, at that short space,

Could see a glimpse of His bright face;

When on some gilded cloud or flower

My gazing soul would dwell an hour,

And in those weaker glories spy

Some shadows of eternity;

In the next section, the speaker goes on to describe what his life was like before he strayed far from home. It was during this period that he “had not walked” more than a “mile or two from” his “first love.” He had not seen very much of the world at this point and knew nothing about its dangers. 

When he looks back now he realizes this was when he could “glimpse” the face of God. It was only for a “short” span this was possible and in moments in which he gazes upon a “gilded cloud or flower.” When he was young he could spend an hour simply contemplating the beauty of the natural world. 

In the final lines he speaks on the glimpses of “eternity” he caught in these moments. They were only “shadows” but they felt infinitely important to him.

Lines 15–20

Before I taught my tongue to wound

My conscience with a sinful sound,

Or had the black art to dispense

A several sin to every sense,

But felt through all this fleshly dress

Bright shoots of everlastingness.

In these lines, Vaughan continues on the same path of describing the life he used to lead when he was young. The speaker is remembering the years of his life which were not marked by his “tongue” wounding his own “conscience.” He didn’t worry about what was morally right or wrong, he simply lived as a young person. 

This is expanded upon in the next lines in which he speaks of “black art” tainting emotions. Before he aged he did not worry about how he felt and if it was sinful. Now though, the nature of his own emotions bothers him. This has been brought on by the teachings of society and perhaps religion. Rather than experience these guilty thoughts about his own life, he felt within his “fleshly dress,” or body, “shoots of everlastingness.” It seemed to his younger self that he would live forever in a perpetual state of youth.

Lines 21–26

       O, how I long to travel back,

And tread again that ancient track!

That I might once more reach that plain

Where first I left my glorious train,

From whence th’ enlightened spirit sees

That shady city of palm trees.

The next part of ‘The Retreat’ takes a new turn. He stops reminiscing and instead expresses his general longing for the past. He makes another exclamation stating, “O, how I long to travel back” (to the past). The speaker would rather live in the past and walk again on “that ancient track,” than living as he does now. 

If he could return, he might have a chance of reaching “that plain” where he left his “glorious train.” He would hope to recover his previous state of being. He knows exactly where he left it too, on the hill alongside the “enlightened spirit.” The spirit, which represents his infancy, is able to see the “shady city of palm trees” from where it rests.

Lines 27–32

But, ah! my soul with too much stay

Is drunk, and staggers in the way.

Some men a forward motion love;

But I by backward steps would move,

And when this dust falls to the urn,

In that state I came, return.

In the last six lines, the speaker mourns for what he will never have again. He has become “drunk” with his own longings and remembrances. The speaker knows it is not a healthy way to live as he will “stagger” about his life without purpose. This fact does not keep him from changing his opinion. He knows he is unlike other men; he loves the “backward steps” rather than the “forward motion.” 

In the final two lines, he speaks about his own death. It will be the ultimate returning as he resumes the form of “dust.” His body will return to the earth and become again what it was before he was born.

Historical Context

‘The Retreat’ is a religious poem about a speaker’s longing to get spiritually pure again. Henry Vaughan, a Welsh metaphysical poet, was greatly influenced by George Herbert. George Herbert’s poems served as a model for Vaughan. In Henry Vaughan’s poems, readers can find the impact of Vaughan’s religious ideas. The themes of this poem, loss of innocence and corruption of childhood are two consistent themes of his works. This poem was published in his best-known poetry collection “Silex Scintillans”. It was published in 1650.

FAQs : The Retreat by Henry Vaughan

Is ‘The Retreat’ a metaphysical poem?

Vaughan’s ‘The Retreat’ is a metaphysical poem. It has several characteristics of this poetic form such as witty wordplay, conceits, directness, innovative style, and uniqueness.

How does Henry Vaughan portray heaven in ‘The Retreat’?

In this poem, Vaughan depicts heaven as the “shady city of palm trees”. The speaker has left his “glorious train” there, just before his birth.

What are the two meanings of the word “retreat” in the title of Henry Vaughan’s poem?

In the title of Vaughan’s poem ‘The Retreat,’ the word “retreat” is a metaphysical conceit. It refers to two distinct ideas. One is abstaining from worldliness, and another is the place of everlasting bliss and happiness, a reference to heaven.

What are the metaphysical conceits used in the poem?

The first metaphysical conceit is present in the title of the poem. The word “retreat” refers to two different ideas. Another conceit is present in the phrase “Bright shoots of everlastingness.” It contains a reference to the soul.

What does the phrase “my second race” mean?

A metaphysical conceit can be found in “my second race”. Here, Vaughan compares his worldly journey to his soul’s second race.

 Read it also :  Death Be Not Proud by John Donne

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